This text refers to items from 1 through 8.
Slavery in the Caribbean
1 Demand for slaves to cultivate sugarcane and other crops
caused what came to be known as the triangle trade. Ships leaving
Europe first stopped in Africa where they traded weapons,
4 ammunition, metal, liquor, and cloth for captives taken in wars or
raids. The ships then traveled to America, where slaves were
exchanged for sugar, rum, salt, and other island products. The ships
7 returned home loaded with products popular with the European
people, and ready to begin their journey again.
An estimated 8 to 15 million Africans reached the Americas
10 from the 16th through the 19th century. Only the youngest and
healthiest people were taken for what was called the middle passage
of the triangle trade, partly because they would be worth more in
13 America, and partly because they were the most likely to reach their
destination alive. Conditions aboard the ships were dreadful. Slaves
were jammed into the hull1; chained to one another in order to stop
16 revolts; as many as one in five passengers did not survive the journey.
When one of the enslaved people was stricken with dysentery or
smallpox, they were cast overboard.
19 Those who survived the middle passage faced more abuses
on the plantations. Many of the plantation owners had returned to
Europe, leaving their holdings in America to be managed by overseers2
22 who were often unstable or unsavory. Slaves families were usually
split up, and the Africans were not allowed to learn to read or write.
African men, women, and children were forced to work with little to
25 eat or drink.
1 hull – body of a ship; the part that floats on the water.
2 overseer – person whose job is to take charge of work and see that it is properly done.
Internet: <www.mrdowling.com> (adapted).
In the text,
1 the word “crops” (R.1) means agricultural plants in the fields.
2 the verb “traded” (R.3) can be correctly replaced by exchanged.
3 an antonym for the word “dreadful” (R.14) may be pleasant.
According to the text, it can be concluded that
4 slaves were often allowed to stay with their family on the plantations.
5 thirty per cent of the slaves died on their way to America.
6 the “middle passage” (R.11) refers to the journey from America to
7 the oldest slaves were not brought to America.
8 the purpose of the information presented in “Ships leaving Europe (…)
their journey again” (R.2-8) is to explain the expression “triangle
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''Seek and ye shall find. Help yourself and heaven will help you. This is the base of the Law of Work and consequently the Law of Progress.'' [Allan Kardec]