If you mean the "reunião de pais e mestres" you can think of "the teacher-parents conference". Here, in Brazil a follow-up conversation/meetings is almost certain. You sit down one-on-one with your child´s teacher to talk about how things are going.
In other countries chances are that you have to schedule a parent-teacher follow up conversation (so, at the parent´s request, but it has to fit the teacher schedule as well.)
Also to mean "um tempo para falar com o professor/uma hora pra falar com o professor" then "an appointment to talk to the teacher would do.