Casual agency e legal agency - Tradução em português

Olá, estou lendo um artigo sobre a responsabilidade de agentes artificiais autônomos e estou tendo problemas no uso da palavra "agency".
Segue abaixo um parágrafo do texto, meu problema está justamente no final (em caixa alta):
"Traditional approaches to handling liability are inadequate for dealing with autonomous artificial agents due to a combination of two factors–unpredictability, and CASUAL AGENCY without LEGAL AGENCY."

Qual o significado de "agency"? É o mesmo nos dois casos "casual agency" e "legal agency"?

Muito obrigado.

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1 resposta
PPAULO 6 48 1.1k
I am afraid there was some mix up here:
In fact where it reads "casual agency" and "legal agency" should read "causal agency" and "legal agency".

Reading on, you will see the example Asaro has given to illustrate:
In traditional product liability, the manufacturer is responsible for the product working as designed, and foreseeing likely problems or harms it may
Cause. Determining what is “foreseeable” often falls upon courts to decide, but the legal standards used are whether the manufacturer had knowledge of the potential problem, or whether a reasonable person should have foreseen it, or whether there is an industry standard of practice that would have revealed it.

In other words, someone has caused the problem or flaw, being liable to penalties/being charged etc. Someone is accountable here.
With artificial agents, to just mention one - a self-driven car monitored by a real driver, the driver blinks and an accident happens, who is accountable? The car, the driver, the programmer or the company that owns the car?
Not judgemental here, it´s just an illustration.
Causal would be, to my thinking, how to stablish who caused the problem, and legal agency would to stablish who legally would be accountable to the courts, not always those are the same.

A little warning: a P.O.V. Of a totally layman, so it can be tecnically flawed; I have dealt with the English language, for (basic) learning purposes.