Você não queria estar em um hospital (como paciente) em 1860, leia o porque & teste seu inglês!
In 1860 you would not have wanted to be a patient in a hospital—es-pecially not to undergo an operation. Hospitals were dark, grimy, and airless. Patients were commonly given beds where the bedclothes were not changed after the previous occupant left—or more probably died. Surgical wards exuded an appalling stench from gangrene and sepsis.
Equally appalling was the death rate from such bacterial infections; at least 40 percent of amputees died from so-called hospital disease. In army hospitals that number approached 70 percent.
Despite the fact that anesthetics had been introduced at the end of 1864, most patients agreed to surgery only as a last resort. Surgical wounds always became infected; accordingly, a surgeon would ensure that the stitches closing an operation site were left long, hanging down toward the ground, so that pus could drain away from the wound. When this happened, it was considered a positive sign, as chances were good that the infection would stay localized and not invade the rest of the body.
Of course, we now know why “hospital disease” was so prevalent and so lethal. It was actually a group of diseases caused by a variety of bacteria that easily passed from patient to patient or even from doctor to a series of patients under unsanitary conditions. When hospital disease became too rife, a physician usually closed down his surgical ward, sent the remaining patients elsewhere, and had the premises fumigated with sulfur candles, the walls whitewashed, and the floors scrubbed. For a while after these precautions infections would be under control— until another outbreak required further attention.
Some surgeons insisted on maintaining constant strict cleanliness, a regime involving lots of cooled boiled water. Others supported the miasma theory, the belief that a poisonous gas generated by drains and sewers was carried in the air and that once a patient was infected, this miasma was transferred through the air to other patients. This miasma theory probably seemed very reasonable at the time. The stench from drains and sewers would have been as bad as the smell of putrefying gangrenous flesh in surgery wards, which would further explain how patients treated at home rather than in a hospital often escaped infection altogether. Various treatments were prescribed to counteract miasma gases, including thymol, salicylic acid, carbon dioxide gas, bitters,raw carrot poultices, zinc sulfate, and boracic acid. The occasional success of any of these remedies was fortuitous and could not be replicated at will.
(Source: Napoleon's Buttons - How 17 molecules changed the history Le Couteur. Burreson)
Agora, pense nas diferenças de um hospital de hoje!!!