"This is my house." Já na frase "This house is mine!"
Just adding my two cent´s worth:
This is my house
. - Possessive MY before a noun.
This house is mine
! - Possessive MINE after a verb and at the end of the sentence.
This is a pattern, and it somehow complements what Cinnamon meant by "adjetivo possessivo" and "pronome possessivo".
So, back to the crux: You took mine. could be something as the following (a hypothetical dialogue to illustrate here):
Character A) You took my wallet...
Character B) You took mine!
OR another dialogue:
Character A - You took my medicine...
Character B - You took mine!
Both - ha ha ha!
See the pattern:
...my wallet (MY before a noun).
...you took mine. (MINE at the end of the sentence and after a verb[ took- past form of take].)