Linking Words (Words that connect) – Part 1

I would like to thank Otavio, for suggesting this subject, and I would like to encourage all readers to make suggestions for me to write about. I also implore all readers to offer corrections for my errors, as I make more than my fair share of them.

In English there are seven main groups of linking words and they are used to; first Give Examples, second Add Information, third Summarize, fourth Sequence Ideas, fifth Give a Reason, sixth Give a Result and seventh Contrast Ideas. I will divide this posting into two segments due to the length of the subject matter.

Giving Examples

  • For example: The most common way of giving an example is to use for example or for instance.
  • For instance: The consequences of not turning in assignments on time in my class are extremely severe, for example (or for instance) those students not completing their assigned essay will receive a failing grade for the year.
  • Namely: Namely refers to something or someone by name. – At this time I have two students that have not completed their essay assignments which are due tomorrow: namely, Joseph and John.

Adding Information

  • And: We went to dinner, the movies and for a walk. Note: There is no comma before “and”.
  • In addition: I filled your windshield washer reservoir and checked your tire pressure, in addition to changing the oil.
  • As well as: In one semester Allison completed her required studies, as well as half of the next semester’s.
  • Also: I want you increase quality, but also you are to reduce costs.
  • Furthermore: Your business plan for the next year is excellent, furthermore it points to the next five years success.
  • Moreover: Can be used instead of furthermore in the immediately preceding example.
  • Apart from: Apart from Mexico City, Sao Paulo is the largest in the Americas.
  • Besides: Can be used in place of apart from.


  • In short
  • In brief
  • In summary
  • To summarize
  • In a nut shell
  • To conclude
  • In conclusion

These phrases are normally used at the beginning of a sentence to indicate that we are tying up a thought or thoughts with a summary, such as: “In summary (or any other phrase, above), to this point we have discussed linking words that, give examples, add information, and summarize ideas.”

Receba aqui um prêmio que vai ajudar você a falar inglês!

Clique aqui e acesse!

Sequencing Ideas

  • The former, the latter
  • Firstly, secondly, finally
  • The first point is
  • Lastly
  • The following

The former and the latter are useful when you desire to reference or two points as in; “While both Jones and Smith attended the university only the latter graduated, while the former quit after one year.” (Jones is the former and Smith is the latter.)

Firstly, secondly, and finally are good ways to list ideas, note that thirdly, fourthly etc. are not normally acceptable, instead try using the first point, the second point, the third point, … and the last point.

The following is a good way to introduce a list, for example; “The following supplies are required for this course, one compass, one pair of dividers, one straight edge, one set of drafting triangles, and one mechanical drafting pencil”.

Due to the length of this subject I have decided to divide it into two separate posts on the Blog pages. Please check back latter for the followings sub-subjects: Giving a Reason, Giving a Result and Contrasting Ideas, as well as a list of links for more study.

See also

Sobre o Autor: Bill Slayman tem 66 anos é americano e mora em Pensacola, Florida, USA. Ele atuou no exército americano e hoje está aposentado. Suas paixões são: andar de Harley Davidson, motocicletas, fotografia e qualquer coisa brasileira. Bill é um dos maiores colaboradores do EE.

Há quanto tempo você estuda inglês? Já passou por sua cabeça que você pode estar estudando de uma forma que dá pouco ou quase nenhum resultado? Que tal fazer um intensivo de inglês de 180 dias e recuperar o tempo perdido? Em 6 meses você pode elevar o seu inglês a um novo nível. Clique aqui e saiba como.


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36 comentários

  • 26/05/11  
    Frederico diz: 1

    Esse assunto é bem complexo. Há um grupo de palavras que ligam palavras, que são as preposições. (the art OF teaching). Há palavras que ligam orações, que são as conjunções (I go surfing AND fishing later.)

    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:

      I think you were asking if “I go surfing and fishing later” is correct. If so yes it is however I would prefer, “I will go surfing and later I will go fishing.”

      Thank you for reading and questioning.

  • 26/05/11  
    Mélory diz: 2

    Very good explanation. Thank you.

    • 26/05/11  
      Maria de Naaré Góes Cravo diz:

      Very good. Congratulations!

    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:

      Thank you,


  • 26/05/11  
    Cynthia diz: 3

    I always enjoy your grammar advises. The writing skill is overlooked in most of English courses, but sometimes it is necessary to know express ourselves through texts. Thank you!

    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:

      Thank you, I try to help all who will read.


  • 26/05/11  
    Otávio diz: 4

    Thank you very much Bill! Looking forward to the next part :D

    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:

      Thank you for your complements, and confidence in my meager skills.


  • 26/05/11  
    fatima stigliani diz: 5

    adorei o comentário. estou estudando inglês para proficiência e os comentários do EE me ajudam muito.

    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:

      Your complements give too much credit, thank you.


  • 26/05/11  
    Marcos Mendes diz: 6

    O Bill Slayman tem essa característica de assuntos complexos né? Acho ótimo termos artigos também dessa categoria por aqui. Mais uma ótima dica!

    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:

      I try to be accurate, and correct in my grammer, but often make errors which make compliments like yours seem extravagent.

  • 26/05/11  
    André diz: 7

    Hi Bill!

    Excellent article, congratulations!

    I’m sure it will help me so much.


    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:

      Thank you for your compliments.


  • 26/05/11  
    J. Henrique diz: 8

    Great! I was looking for an article like this. I’ll be looking forward the next. Tanks Bill.

    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:

      I hope the next is as well received as this one has been.



  • 26/05/11  
    Stan diz: 9

    good information…..tks

  • 27/05/11  
    Marlon diz: 10

    Awesome! thanks for sharing …

  • 28/05/11  
    Poliana diz: 11

    Pessoal, todos os posts que o Mr. Slayman publica
    são simplesmente maravilhosos,muito enriquecedores para o vocabulário.Eu mesma,quando recebo as postagens no meu e-mail,gosto de ler uma,duas e até três vezes o texto
    que o Mr. Slayman escreve,porque faz a gente
    treinar pronúncia, compreensão do texto,
    aumentar o vocabulário,é ótimo.O EE é realmente especial na minha vida de estudo do
    inglês.Congratulations, EE! And thanks a lot,
    Mr. Slayman for the informations you share
    with us.

    • 29/05/11  
      Alessandro diz:


      Muito obrigado pelo comentário e elogios.

      Bons estudos!

    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:

      Thank you, Poliana, for the compliments.

  • 30/05/11  
    João B. L. Ghizoni diz: 12

    I liked this post very much.

    Also, I’d like to ask Mr. Slayman if it is possible for him to say briefly WHEN it is possible to use a comma before “and”. At the beginning of the post he wrote “there is no comma before ‘and'”. And a few paragraphs below there is an example with an “and” after a comma.

    Do you agree, Mr. Slayman, that it is okay to use the comma before “and” in two situations, namely, when the subject for the next verb is different from the one for the previous verb; and when we want to separate very clearly the last two items in a list?

    I thank you in advance for a word on my comment.

    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:


      Very good eye, the passage in question should not have had the comma followed by and, that was an error on my part. Thank you for pointing it out, as I have said before I make my share of errors.


  • 30/05/11  
    Carlos Otavio diz: 13

    Way to go Bill!
    Connectors are very important since they give a logical sequence to sentences and make communication clearer.

    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:

      Thank you Carlos.


  • 01/06/11  
    Daniel macedo diz: 14

    Thanks very much for the help that you give to us man!

    But i have to say that is very complicated to me understand the words those you use.My teacher of the “normal” told that grammar is very important,but i don use grammar to my portuguese,i ever had study to speak and i dont speak so bad!rsrs

    Anyway,i know that is important,i’ll take care of learn your words…And if i writed something wron,tell me!

    • 01/06/11  
      Daniel macedo diz:

      I wanted say “normal school”.

    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:

      If my words are not in your vocabulary, please look them up in the online dictionary. Thank you for reading my postings and replying.

  • 02/06/11  
    Maria de Naaré Góes Cravo diz: 15

    I liked this sit , very good!
    Congratulations Alessandro!
    I need many this, i know not nothin.
    And thank you.
    A hug.

    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:


      Your English is much better than my Portuguese, so do not be discouraged, and thank you for your attention.

  • 12/06/11  
    Nancy diz: 16

    Very interesting and useful the explanation of linking words by Mr. Slayman. I´ll read and study hard these tips.
    Thanks so much both Alexandre and Mr.Slayman

    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:


      The pleasure is mine in that I can help students such as you, even in my small way.


  • 03/07/11  
    Jack diz: 17

    Very nice! Conectors (linking words) is one of the hardest subjects in English for me and it really helped me. And I got more conectors added to my vocabulary so… thank you guys!

  • 08/07/11  
    Kleber diz: 18

    Ohhh Thank you! I was looking for better explanations about this subject for a long time…

  • 20/09/11  
    Newtspad69 diz: 19

    I just wanted to thank you people,especially Mr. Slayman for the excellent explanation. Although I am an English teacher,there are many different and complex things I need to learn.
    Thank you so much.