Linking Words (Words that connect) – Part 2

Again I would like to thank Otavio, for suggesting this topic, and to also encourage others to suggest topics for me to expound upon. Further I ask that if you find any errors in my postings please let me know.

In the first installment of “Linking Words” I covered; Giving Examples, Adding Information, Summarizing and Sequencing Ideas. In this installment, as promised, I shall cover the following: Giving a Reason, Giving a Result, and Contrasting Ideas. If by chance you have not read the first installment I suggest that you do so before studying this one.

Giving a Reason

  • Due to / due to the fact that
  • Owing to / owing to the fact
  • Because / because of
  • Since
  • As

Due to and owing to must be followed by a noun. “Due to the rise in wholesale prices we have to raise our retail prices.”

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If you want to follow due to and owing to with a clause you must add the words “the fact”. “Due to the fact that the union has gone on strike we can not fulfill our orders.”

Because of must be followed by a noun. “Because of snow in Sao Paulo, the city was paralyzed.”

Since and as mean because. “Since (as) the streets are covered with snow, nobody is driving.”

Giving a Result

  • Therefore
  • Consequently
  • This means that
  • As a result
  • So (Informal and not normally used in written communications.)

“The price of crude oil is rising on a daily basis, therefore (or any of the phrases above) the cost of gasoline is increasing and as a result many people can not afford to drive their cars, and consequently the use of the public transportation system has also increased.”

Contrasting Ideas

  • However
  • Although / even though
  • Despite / despite the fact that
  • In spite of / in spite of the fact that
  • In theory / in practice
  • Nevertheless
  • Nonetheless
  • While
  • Where as
  • Unlike
  • But (Informal and not usually used at the beginning of a sentence, instead use However at the beginning of a sentence.)

Although, despite and in spite of introduce ideas of contrast and you must have a compound sentence. Despite and in spite of must be followed by a noun, and if followed by a clause you must add the words the fact that. “Despite the earnest efforts of the management team, the company lost money last quarter.”

In theory / in practice show an unexpected result. “In theory stock market predictions are simple. However in practice they are very difficult and unpredictable.”

Nevertheless / nonetheless mean in spite of that or anyway. “It was blistering hot, but nevertheless he went for a run.”
While, whereas and unlike are used to show how two things are different.

“While my four brothers have brown hair, mine is black.” “Social security taxes have gone up, whereas the benefits have gone down.” “Unlike the USA gasoline in Brazil is expensive.”

Bill has worked hard to learn Portuguese. “However, he has not mastered the language.”

While this is not a complete list of linking words, some of the more common ones are included.

For more information see

Sobre o Autor: Bill Slayman tem 66 anos é americano e mora em Pensacola, Florida, USA. Ele atuou no exército americano e hoje está aposentado. Suas paixões são: andar de Harley Davidson, motocicletas, fotografia e qualquer coisa brasileira. Bill é um dos maiores colaboradores do EE.

Há quanto tempo você estuda inglês? Já passou por sua cabeça que você pode estar estudando de uma forma que dá pouco ou quase nenhum resultado? Que tal fazer um intensivo de inglês de 180 dias e recuperar o tempo perdido? Em 6 meses você pode elevar o seu inglês a um novo nível. Clique aqui e saiba como.


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18 comentários

  • 02/06/11  
    Dicas de Inglês - Linking Words (Words that connect) – Part 1 diz: 1

    […] Linking Words (Words that connect) – Part 2 […]

  • 02/06/11  
    João B. L. Ghizoni diz: 2

    Bill, thanks for this post and congrats! Really nice!

    I have two little questions, though:

    a) you spelled the negative form of “can” as two words; in Brazil textbooks teach us (I taught myself English through books) that “can not” should be spelled as one word (cannot). Can you say something about it?

    b) As to your example “Unlike the USA gasoline in Brazil is expensive”. Do you see any difference if I say “Unlike the USA, Brazil sells gasoline at a very high price”? Is the way you wrote an informal one? It gives me the impression that you’re comparing “the USA” with “gasoline in Brazil”. Would you mind commenting on this doubt of mine? I thank you in advance.

    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:


      While cannot is most often used, can not and can’t are also acceptable and may be used interchangably.

      My typo, I should have written, “Unlike in the USA gasoline in Brazil is expensive.”

      Again a very sharp eye, your corrections and suggestions are always welcome.


  • 02/06/11  
    Leo diz: 3

    Muito bom esse Post. Quem sabe um dia Bill nao grava um Podcast, seria excelente …

    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:

      Thank your for the compliments.


  • 02/06/11  
    Daniele diz: 4

    I love it. I have many problem with this.
    kisses. Thanks.

    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:

      My pleasure, thank you for the complements.


  • 03/06/11  
    Klenisson Brenner diz: 5

    The only error: doesn’t snow in São Paulo
    São Paulo is not that cold =D

    By the way…very good post, as always

    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:


      I know it does not snow in Sao Paulo, but with the traffic problems you have on a clear and dry day can you imagine the total panic and gridlock if you did get even 1 cm of snow. I was trying to be funny, with a bit of artistic license.


  • 03/06/11  
    Diego diz: 6

    The way climate changes are going, it shall snow soon enough in São Paulo.

    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:

      Thank you for an alternative excuse, for saying Sao Paulo and snow in the same sentence. :D


  • 03/06/11  
    Otávio diz: 7

    Thank you!!! Excellent as always

    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:


      Thank you for suggesting this subject. I need more suggestions. ;)


  • 05/06/11  
    BrunoCosta diz: 8

    Snow in São Paulo maybe ounce a century!

    Thanks Bill!

  • 06/06/11  
    Franklin Oliveira diz: 9

    thank you o much for this great tip, it is gonna be really useful for my FCE exam.

    • 22/06/11  
      Bill Slayman diz:


      Thank you for reading, and studying. Good luck on the FCE exam.


  • 18/01/12  
    Jackie diz: 10

    Hi, Bill!
    I have a question :)

    Would it be possible if instead of “Because of snow in Sao Paulo, the city was paralyzed.”, I wrote “Because of THE snow in Sao Paulo, the city was paralyzed”??

    Why or why not?