Again I would like to thank Otavio, for suggesting this topic, and to also encourage others to suggest topics for me to expound upon. Further I ask that if you find any errors in my postings please let me know.
In the first installment of “Linking Words” I covered; Giving Examples, Adding Information, Summarizing and Sequencing Ideas. In this installment, as promised, I shall cover the following: Giving a Reason, Giving a Result, and Contrasting Ideas. If by chance you have not read the first installment I suggest that you do so before studying this one.
Giving a Reason
- Due to / due to the fact that
- Owing to / owing to the fact
- Because / because of
Due to and owing to must be followed by a noun. “Due to the rise in wholesale prices we have to raise our retail prices.”
If you want to follow due to and owing to with a clause you must add the words “the fact”. “Due to the fact that the union has gone on strike we can not fulfill our orders.”
Because of must be followed by a noun. “Because of snow in Sao Paulo, the city was paralyzed.”
Since and as mean because. “Since (as) the streets are covered with snow, nobody is driving.”
Giving a Result
- This means that
- As a result
- So (Informal and not normally used in written communications.)
“The price of crude oil is rising on a daily basis, therefore (or any of the phrases above) the cost of gasoline is increasing and as a result many people can not afford to drive their cars, and consequently the use of the public transportation system has also increased.”
- Although / even though
- Despite / despite the fact that
- In spite of / in spite of the fact that
- In theory / in practice
- Where as
- But (Informal and not usually used at the beginning of a sentence, instead use However at the beginning of a sentence.)
Although, despite and in spite of introduce ideas of contrast and you must have a compound sentence. Despite and in spite of must be followed by a noun, and if followed by a clause you must add the words the fact that. “Despite the earnest efforts of the management team, the company lost money last quarter.”
In theory / in practice show an unexpected result. “In theory stock market predictions are simple. However in practice they are very difficult and unpredictable.”
Nevertheless / nonetheless mean in spite of that or anyway. “It was blistering hot, but nevertheless he went for a run.”
While, whereas and unlike are used to show how two things are different.
“While my four brothers have brown hair, mine is black.” “Social security taxes have gone up, whereas the benefits have gone down.” “Unlike the USA gasoline in Brazil is expensive.”
Bill has worked hard to learn Portuguese. “However, he has not mastered the language.”
While this is not a complete list of linking words, some of the more common ones are included.
For more information see
Sobre o Autor: Bill Slayman tem 66 anos é americano e mora em Pensacola, Florida, USA. Ele atuou no exército americano e hoje está aposentado. Suas paixões são: andar de Harley Davidson, motocicletas, fotografia e qualquer coisa brasileira. Bill é um dos maiores colaboradores do EE.