Diferença entre ''near'' e ''by''

Eu encontrei essas frases com by e nao entendi o sentindo dessas frases
Where is the painting?
Primeiro eles colocaram
You talk about where things are. You say: near
The painting is near the window.
E depois :
You can talk about where things are a new way. You can say: by
The painting is by the window.
The painters are by the theater.
qual a diferença entre near e by

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2 respostas
NeyF 3 24 200
The painting is by the window. = The painting is near the window.

Nesse caso by e near são sinônimos.
PPAULO 6 47 1.1k
By - when preposition referring to places often is with the meaning of "right beside";
My house is by the river. (minha casa é junto ao rio/pertinho (ao lado) do rio).
I parked and waited for her by the car. (eu estacionei e a esperei alí, ao lado do carro.

Near - would generally suggest something "not to far/not distant".
Indeed, in a broader definition "near" would mean "not distant" in time, space or significance (Merriam-Webster).

Sometimes there is some intersection in meaning/sense, as NeyF has pointed out. Hence, sometimes it´s okay to use one or the other.
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