Thereby x Thus x So x Therefore: Qual a diferença

Avatar do usuário claudemircloud 115 1
Olá pessoal, existe alguma diferença entre os usos de "thereby","thus","so" e "therefore" me referendo quando eles tratam de consequencia?
Por favor, escrevam alguns exemplos...
In advance, thanks!
MENSAGEM PATROCINADA Você sabe como está o seu nível de inglês? Teste agora GRÁTIS em apenas alguns minutos.

Clique aqui para iniciar o Teste Online!
Avatar do usuário claudemircloud 115 1
bom, observem este exemplo:

During his lifetime, he also investigated the strengths of materials and determined the forces that affect object on beams, THEREBY contributing to the field of structural mechanics.

source: Physics for Scientists and Engineers...pag 712(Charles Coulomb)
Avatar do usuário Donay Mendonça 49865 21 80 1154
Claudemir,

"Thereby" é um termo formal, muito usado em documentos, declarações, etc.

"Thus" também é um termo bem formal, em linguagem falada usa-se mais "so".

"Therefore" não é necessariamente formal.

Veja exemplos de uso em:

http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/thereby
http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/thus
http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/so_2
http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/therefore

Bons estudos!
Avatar do usuário claudemircloud 115 1
Thanks a lot donay,, these examples are rock!
These expressions are often used to show that what is said follows logically from what was said before.

Therefore, as a result, so, then, consequently

She was, therefore, unable to find a solution.
So she had to quit her job.
I think; therefore, I am.
‘We have missed the bus.’ ‘Then we are going to have to hire a taxi.’
They grew up in Japan; hence their interest in Zen Buddhism.
He sustained severe injuries and, consequently, spent the rest of his life in a wheelchair.

Therefore is common in mathematical proofs.

Hence and thus

Hence and thus have the same basic meaning and are often interchangeable. However, there is a slight difference. Hence usually refers to the future. Thus usually refers to the past. It is often used to indicate a conclusion.

Both sides played well, thus no winner was declared.
The situation is getting more and more complicated. Hence we will have to proceed with caution. (NOT Thus we will have to proceed with caution.)

So and then

There is a difference between then and so. Then is used when one speaker replies to another. So can be used in both ways.

‘The last train has gone.’ ‘So / then we will have to walk.’ (Two speakers)
‘The last train has gone, so we will have to walk. (NOT ‘The last train has gone, then we will have to walk’) (Same speaker)