Agreed. If the question was "did you played the guitar?" Yes, I did.
"Have you ever played..." Yes, I have (or haven´t, if otherwise).
To me, if you are answering "have you..." .
You could say "yes I did played'' it would be thought as, "sim, eu realmente toquei."
It´s another context (DID here don´t mean "I have played" but "I really have played." (so, DID for emphasis.) and wouldn´t be advisable to leave "played" out, then.