Uso do Subjuntivo

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Sei que conjugação do "tempo verbal subjuntivo" presente e futuro em inglês é diferente, comparada com o português. Vejamos algumas frases:

1 - Eu quero que você faça isso. I want you to do that ou I want that you do that.
Quanto passamos para as terceiras pessoas do singular, "antes" tinhas algumas opções e tenho a impressão de que algo n regra mudou.
E.g: I want you to study English ou I want that you study English!
I want her to study English ou I want that she study English ( presente do Subjuntivo e nunca " I want that she studies Ensglish para diferenciar do Simple Present.
Tenho visto que corretores de "grammar" como Paperrater ou grammly dão a " frase" I want her to study English como Incorretas gramaticalmente falando, mas se usa no dia a dia.
Sabemos que há grupo de verbos que " can be followed immediately by an infinitive - such as " : ask, like, choose, want, expect etc...
E.g.: 1 - Did they ask you to go ?- Did they ask you to go?
2 - Would they like to leave? - would they like her to leave?
3 - Why did she choose to vacation there? - why did she choose that girl to vacation with her?

Outros " can be followed immediately by an infinitive or by an accusative and an infinitive as in examples above. Such as: wish, bear, decide, love, hate intend etc...
E.g.: 1 - He wish to cover up the mess - He wished to have the mess covered up immediately.
2 - He could not bear to leave her alone. - he could not bear to haver abused by the neighbors.
3 - Mrs Andrews decided to move even before he did. - Ms Andrews decided to have him moved before he had time to think about the consequences.

Existem tb aquele grupo especial que não precisam de formar o infinitivo com "to". Such as: make, watch, let, see, notice, help, hear, feewl, smell etc...
Caso possa, ficaria muito grato ter seu feedback.
Atenciosamnete,
Jgeraldo

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1 resposta
Pelo que entendi, você gostaria de saber as regras atuais para o subjuntivo. Certo?

Bem, se for isso, primeiro é importante frisar que não existem regras fixas, mas sim um conjunto de regras que é mais aceito pela maioria dos manuais de gramática, mas se você estiver fazendo algum trablaho para determinada faculdade ou jornal, é preciso consultar o manual de estilo e de gramática do estabelecimento.

No inglês americano, na minha opinião as 3 principais referências são o Manual de Chicago, Garner e Webster.

Como seu trabalho é muito específico e necessita de referências precisas, e os diversos posts sobre o subjuntivo aqui no EE não foram suficientes para sanar suas dúvidas, coloco aqui as fontes de informação, na totalidade sobre o subjuntivo. Ressalvo que são livros que eu possuo e consulto frequentemente. Conforme falei, há diversas fontes para referência. Veja a que melhor te atende. Se precisar de mais fontes, basta pedir, ainda tenho mais alguns livros bem interessantes:
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1) The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation, (2016), pages 92-94
169 Present subjunctive. The present-tense subjunctive mood is formed by using the base form of the verb, such as be. This form of subjunctive often appears in suggestions or requirements {he recommended that we be ready at a moment’s notice} {we insist that he retain control of the accounting department}. The present-tense subjunctive is also expressed by using either be plus the simple-past form of the verb or a past-form auxiliary plus an infinitive {the chair proposed that the company be acquired by the employees through a stock-ownership plan} {today would be convenient for me to search for that missing file} {might he take down the decorations this afternoon?}.

170 Past subjunctive. Despite its label, the past-tense subjunctive mood refers to something in the present or future but contrary to fact. It is formed using the verb’s simple-past tense, except for be, which becomes were regardless of the subject’s number. For example, the declaration if only I had a chance expresses that the speaker has little or no chance. Similarly, I wish I were safe at home almost certainly means that the speaker is not at
home and perhaps not safe—though it could also mean that the speaker is at home but quite unsafe.
This past-tense-but-present-sense subjunctive typically appears in the form if I (he, she, it) were {if I were king} {if she were any different}. That is, the subjunctive mood ordinarily uses a past-tense verb (e.g., were) to connote uncertainty, impossibility, or unreality where the present or future indicative would otherwise be used. Compare If I am threatened, I will quit (indicative) with If I were threatened, I would quit (subjunctive), or If the canary sings, I smile (indicative) with If the canary sang (or should sing, or were to sing), I would smile (subjunctive).

171 Past-perfect subjunctive. Just as the past subjunctive uses a verb’s simplepast-tense form to refer to the present or future, the past-perfect subjunctive uses a verb’s past-perfect form to refer to the past. The past-perfect subjunctive typically appears in the form if I (he, she, it) had been {if he had been there} {if I had gone}. That is, the subjunctive mood ordinarily uses a past-perfect verb (e.g., had been) to connote uncertainty or impossibility where the past or past-perfect indicative would otherwise be used. Compare If it arrived, it was not properly filed (indicative) with If it had arrived, it could have changed the course of history (subjunctive). The pastperfect subjunctive is identical in form to the past-perfect indicative, so the two can be distinguished only by context: if a past-perfect clause is followed by a conditional clause, the first clause is usually subjunctive as well. Compare If it had snowed the night before, then the children always made a snowman (indicative) with If it had snowed the night before, school would have been canceled (subjunctive).
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2) Garner's Modern English Usage, by Bryan Garner, 4 ed (page 869)
Subjunctives. In modern English, the subjunctive mood of the verb appears primarily in six contexts: (1) conditions contrary to fact <if I were king> (where the indicative would be am); (2) suppositions <if I were to go, I wouldn’t be able to finish this project> (where the indicative would be was); (3) wishes <I wish that I were able to play piano> (where the indicative would be was); (4) demands and commands <I insisted that he go> (where the indicative would be goes); (5) suggestions and proposals <I suggest that she think about it a little longer> (where the indicative would be thinks); and (6) statements of necessity <it’s necessary that they be there> (where the indicative would be are).
Although subjunctives are less common in English than they once were, they survive in those six contexts. While suppositions and wishes are the most common examples in conversation, the others are most common in writing. And they’re worth keeping. Following is some evidence of slippage (along with four correct uses).
Counterfactual conditions:
• “But the truth is, if it wasn’t [read hadn’t been] for a lastminute infusion of cash by an out-of-state lobbying group, the initiative would not have even garnered enough signatures to qualify for the ballot.” Jack Fischer, “Populist Rhetoric Masks Measure Aimed at Congress, ” San Jose Mercury News, 21 Oct. 1992, at A1.
• “I felt as though I was [read were] using an alias, a wellused and permanent one as the years went by, but an alias nevertheless.” Mary Willis, “How I Gave Up My Alias, ” N.Y. Times, 16 Oct. 1994, § 6, at 32. (The writer is talking about giving up her married name—thus it’s contrary to fact.) • “Even if he was to [read were to or does] endorse another candidate, he actually has little in the way of a political operation to pass on.” Bill Turque, “A Pilgrimage to Perot, ” Newsweek, 7 Aug. 1995, at 32.
Demands and commands:
• “Britain’s farmers are worried that consumers and more supermarkets are going to start demanding that all British beef comes [read come] from herds free from confirmed cases of BSE.” R. Palmer & I. Birrell, “Vets Question the Safety of UK Sausages, ” Sunday Times (London), 10 June 1990, § 1, at 3.
• “Ike directed that every effort be made to do so.” Frank Whitsitt, “They Also Served Who Bark and Sniff, ” Wall Street J., 20 May 1996, at A18.
Suggestions and proposals:
• “His plans reduced to regrets, he suggests that his informant checks [read check] with Israeli intelligence.” Leslie Thomas, “Mega-Nerds Meet the Mega-Villains, ” Sunday Times (London), 15 Apr. 1990, at H7.
• “And France proposes that the EC commits [read commit] itself to a single currency by 1999.” Rory Watson & Nicholas Comfort, “Maastricht Deal Will Shape Our Destiny, ” European, 6–12 Dec. 1991, at 1.
• “Circuit Judge John E. McCormick is expected to propose Tuesday that Milwaukee County judges be elected by county-supervisor districts.” Chester Sheard, “Judge to Urge District Judicial Elections, ” Milwaukee J. Sentinel, 18 Oct. 1994, at A5.
Statements of necessity:
• “His entrance into the military made it necessary that he use the birth-certificate version [of his name].” Mike Elfland, “Outspoken Burke Says City Hall Needs Harder Sell to Lure Businesses, ” Telegram & Gaz. (Worcester), 19 Sept. 1997, at B1.
• “It will be necessary that he or she have a solid understanding of school finances.” Alyssa Roggie, “Candidates Target Budget, Openness, ” Intelligencer J. (Lancaster, Pa.), 30 Oct. 1997, at B1.
• “When the position potentially involves exercising the power of life or death over citizens, it is essential that screening procedures are [read be] in place to keep from hiring people who are temperamentally unsuited for the work.” “Is Screening Sufficient?” Herald (Rock Hill, S.C.), 15 Dec. 1997, at A9.
Formerly, writers used subjunctives with every type of condition, whether contrary to fact or not. Today most of these sound like not-so-quaint archaisms—e.g.: • “Its very existence is, therefore, a bulwark against oppression and tyranny, no matter who be the potential oppressor or tyrant.” Leslie Scarman, English Law—The New Dimension 6 (1974).
• “The word processor is a marvelous machine, and no sensible writer, if such there be, should scorn it.” Stephen White, The Written Word 74 (1984).
Subjunctives also persist in a few idiomatic phrases, such as Long live the Queen, as it were, be that as it may, far be it from me, and the literary would (that) it were. Another example is be they—e.g.: “In social situations, a conversation with Justice Brennan is likely as not to focus on the interests of those with whom he is speaking, be they judges, politicians and journalists, or waitresses, secretaries and gardeners.” Martin Tolchin, “Brennan Described as Self-Effacing, Sociable Irish Pol, ” Dallas Morning News, 22 July 1990, at A12. They also endure in statements of fear or anxiety with the word lest. See lest (b). See also tenses (a).
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3) Webster's Dictionary of English Usage (1989) (pages 876-878)
subjunctive
Fading into the sunset, probably forever, is that splendid old mood we have known as the subjunctive --Richard L. Tobin, Righting Words, May/June 1988 Another writer, it seems, has discovered the disappearing subjunctive; observers of the language have been reading obsequies for the subjunctive for a century or more. As long ago as 1907 the brothers Fowler were quoting "an experienced word-actuary" who put the subjunctive's life expectancy at a generation. The wordactuary was Henry Bradley, one of the OED editors, and he made the statement in a book, The Making of English, published in 1904.
But even Bradley was not breaking new ground. Ayres 1881 paraphrased three unnamed grammarians who thought the subjunctive more or less defunct. One of them was probably William Dwight Whitney, who is quoted in Finegan 1980 as remarking in an 1877 grammar that "the subjunctive, as a separate mode, is almost lost and out of mind in our language." Even earlier, at the end of the 18th century, Noah Webster was either regretting or welcoming the loss of the subjunctive (he took different views in different works). And even before that Priestley--we assume from our 1798 edition that it was in his 1761 book--observed that the subjunctive (he called it conjunctive, after the practice of Samuel Johnson) was "much neglected by many of our best writers." The 18th-century grammarians had barely discovered the subjunctive, so apparently it was in decline as soon as it was recognized. The historical grammarians show that it has, in fact, been in decline since Old English, when the modal auxiliaries began to take over some of its functions.
But the subjunctive has not disappeared. H. L.
Mencken, who had declared the subjunctive "virtually extinct in the vulgar tongue" in The American Language (4th éd., 1936), commented in his second supplement (1948):
On higher levels, of course, the subjunctive shows more life, and there is ground for questioning the conclusion of Bradley, Krapp, Vizetelly, Fowler and other authorities that it is on its way out.
Mencken made the distinction between the written and spoken language that many other commentators have overlooked. Our evidence, mostly written, bears out Mencken's observation.
The subjunctive in modern English is, however, an all but invisible verb form. Its chief characteristic for most verbs is a lack of inflection, and so it is only noticeable when it turns up in a context calling for an inflection.
The present subjunctive of the verb think, for instance,
Is think, and you really only notice that it is a subjunctive when it appears with a subject that would ordinarily require thinks. The verb whose subjunctive forms are most noticeable is be, with be in the present, which contrasts with all the indicative forms (am, are, is), and were in the past, which frequently (as we shall see) contrasts with was. It is this latter contrast, especially in various conditional clauses, that has stirred the most controversy. We will come to that problem in due course, but first let us take note of two uncontroversial uses of the subjunctive which are seldom considered in notices of its death.
The subjunctive is preserved like a fossil in a number of fixed formulas--so be it, be that as it may, Heaven forbid, come what may, suffice it to say, and so forth-that are used every day without much thought about their peculiarity. An example or two of some others:
I write entirely by smell as it were --Flannery O'Connor, letter, 19 Feb. 1956 . . . Willing to make digressions and, if need be, to get nowhere --Leacock 1943 "... And far be it from me to throw any fanciful impediment in the way..." --Jane Austen, Mansfield Park, 1814 ... . the randomness and drift, the sheer, as it were,
Deadness --Wilfrid Sheed, The Good Word and Other Words, 1978 These phrases excite no controversy.
Also uncontroversial is the so-called mandative subjunctive--a highfalutin term for the subjunctive found in the common parliamentary formula "I move that the meeting be adjourned." This subjunctive occurs in clauses following such verbs as ask, demand, recommend, suggest, insist and such phrases as it is advisable and it is necessary.
... It was recommended that the President not inform Congress --Edwin Meese 3d, quoted in The Tower Commission Report, 1987 The author suggested that buildings be found that are near high-voltage power lines --Jon M. Van Dyke, Center Mag., July/August 1970 What she found led her to recommend ... That thalidomide be barred from the market --Current Biography, March 1966 . ... When to recommend that a student seek help -Nancy S. Prichard, College Composition and Communication, February 1970 Mrs. Clark suggested that the class learn some simple first-aid and health rules --Matilda Bailey et al., Our English Language, 3d éd., 1963 (6th-grade text) This use of the subjunctive is regular. Todd & Hancock 1986 notes that these sentences are of a rather formal structure.
The controversial uses of the subjunctive occur with verbs of wishing and in contrary-to-fact conditional clauses, almost always in contexts involving the contrast of the subjunctive were with the indicative was. Here are some examples of the subjunctive in such contexts:
I wish there weren't stones in my boots, so I do, and I wish to God I had a cup of tea and a fresh egg -James Stephens, The Crock of Gold, 1912 ... Although I wish that Ralph Mooney's sweet-andsad singing steel guitar were a bit more up-front -Tony Glover, Rolling Stone, 18 July 1974 If I were younger and could see anything at all I would appear or let someone make a film --James Thurber, letter, 15 Aug. 1959 ... Brings it down gently on the driver's shoulder, as if he were bestowing knighthood --Jay Mclnerney,
Bright Lights, Big City, 1984 ... Minutely scrutinizes the novels along with the writer, as though she were inviting us to watch her take an extremely rare watch to pieces and put it together again --Mollie Panter-Downes, New Yorker, 4 Nov. 1985 Today it is snowing here & were I not confined to my bed taking two-toned pills I would be painting a snow scene --Flannery O'Connor, letter, March 1960 Were a war to break out --Kosta Tsipsis, Discover,
April 1987 From these examples it can be seen that the subjunctive is likely to be found after the verb wish (and perhaps in other expressions of a wish), after if, as if, and as though, and at the beginning of a clause or sentence stating something contrary to fact or hypothetical. Hall 1917 and Jespersen 1909-49 (vol. 4) observe that was began to compete with were in these contexts sometime around the end of the 16th century (Jespersen's earliest example is from Christopher Marlowe's Hero and Leander, published in 1598, five years after Marlowe's death).
The next earliest examples are from the second half of the 17th century, however, so we may hazard a guess that was did not become frequent in this use until around the end of the 17th century--beginning, say,
With Defoe (Jespersen cites examples from Defoe and other early 18th-century writers such as Swift and Addison). Jespersen hazards no guess as to why was began to compete with the older were, other than to note that in some contexts was is more emphatic. Such an emphatic was can be illustrated, with a bit of scene-setting, by a few lines from George Farquhar's The Inconstant ( 1702). Captain Duretete has designs upon a young lady named Bisarre who had adopted a pose of being absorbed in the study of philosophy. Duretete is sure he can win her by philosophical argument and bribes her maid for admittance to her rooms in order to talk. The maid secretes him behind a screen. But when Bisarre comes in and sees no one around, she drops her philosophical pose, throws down her book, and calls for music.
BISARRE. Come wench, let's be free; call in the fiddle,
There's nobody near us.
Enter Fiddler.
CAPTAIN DURETETE [aside]. Would to the Lord there was not!
But most of the examples, in Jespersen and elsewhere,
Are not notably emphatic:
I wish my cold hand was in the warmest place about you --Jonathan Swift, Journal to Stella, 5 Feb. 1711 I wish H. Was not quite so fat --Lord Byron, letter,
8 Dec. 1811 I wish it was Elinor and I seeing you about now instead of them two irresponsible wastrels our son and daughter --Robert Frost, letter, 1 Nov. 1927 I wish I was six feet tall and I wouldn't mind if I was handsome --And More by Andy Rooney, 1982 Was is likewise common in unemphatic contexts after if as if, and as though:
If Eastbourne was only a mile off from Scarborough,
I would come and see you tomorrow --Lewis Carroll, letter, 14 July 1877 The situation in the Middle East ... Might be very different if there was an international left with a strong base --Noam Chomsky, Columbia Forum,
Winter 1969 Why do I grin when I see her, as if I was delighted?
--W. M. Thackeray, The Book of Snobs, 1846 ... And the women can all carry me in their arms as though I was a baby --Henry Adams, letter, 9 Oct.
1890 It may seem that was is crowding out subjunctive were in informal contexts, such as the letters and journals among our examples here. But not necessarily:
... If you were allowed to cut your finger with it,
Once a week --Lewis Carroll, letter, 23 Jan. 1862 If I were ten years younger I might have tackled one of these assignments --Groucho Marx, letter, 5 July 1961 ... I should feel as if I were flirting with my aunt -Henry Adams, letter, 23 Nov. 1859
Jespersen observes that subjunctive were is least likely to be displaced in the constructions without a conjunction in which it begins a clause or sentence. But even here he found a few examples with was, like this one:
Was I Diogenes, I would not move out of a kilderkin into a hogshead --Charles Lamb, letter, 29 Mar.
1809 One of the curiosities of the was- were competition is the tendency of many writers to use both, often very close together, even in the same sentence. The tendency was noted as early as the 18th century (by Priestley 1798) and Jespersen has numerous examples. Here are a couple we have found:
... . and all staring, gravely, as if it were a funeral, at me as if I was the coffin --Henry Adams, letter, 15 May 1859 I wish I was a dog and Ronald Reagan were a Jelly Bean tree --Reinhold Aman, Maledicta, Summer/
Winter 1982 It should be remarked that //and as if do not always introduce an unreal condition and therefore //and as if do not necessarily call for a subjunctive:
If he was to marry the queen, the power of the nobles was such that he would have first to gain their approbation --John Butt, English Literature in the MidEighteenth Century, edited & completed by Geoffrey Carnall, 1979 ... . Freud felt as if he was being observed; raising his eyes he found some children staring down at him -E. L. Doctorow, Ragtime, 1975 ... . asked Dick if there was any way that he could get us to meet before the 3 Nov. Meeting --Oliver North, quoted in The Tower Commission Report,
1987 Sometimes the subjunctive were is actually used when there is no unreal or hypothetical condition; it is probably triggered somewhat automatically by a preceding if:
He was asked if he were apprehensive --N. Y. Times,
16 Jan. 1972 I do not even know if she were actually a War Widow --Richard Cobb, Still Life, 1983 It could have been then; if it weren't, it was certainly the next day --Donald Regan, testifying at the IranContra hearings, 1987 This use is considered hypercorrect by those who notice it; it would be safe to say, however, that very few notice it.
To repeat, we do not really know why, three or four hundred years ago, was began to compete with the older subjunctive were in wishes and hypothetical and other unreal statements. It simply happened. The success that the indicative form has had since then has probably been abetted by the near invisibility of the subjunctive.
We do not have any distinctive subjunctive forms in modern English; every one we can identify as a subjunctive is simply an indicative form doing double duty. The subjunctive as an entity, then, has very little support in the grammar, and much of the time the subjunctive and indicative are identical:
And here in Missouri we don't charge our kinfolks with fees like we would do if they were strangers --
Luther Burrus, quoted in Merle Miller, Plain Speaking, 1973 Little wonder, then, that the subjunctive has so little impact on the general consciousness.
But the old forms die hard. If it is generally true, as commentators have been saying for a century, that the subjunctive is dying out of the common speech (as distinct from writing), there are still signs that it is not yet extinct. A colleague reports hearing this subjunctive in the chatter of two children on a Chicago subway train:
If I were fat like you, I wouldn't...
And clearly the subjunctive is not gone from writing, no matter how many commentators say that it is not as common now as it was a century ago. You will doubtless find many uses for it in your own writing, whether you are aware of them or not.
See also IF 3.
Desculpe-me pelo post longo e com formatação não muito adequada, mas creio que o conteudo será de extrema relevância para seu trabalho.

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