I know this sounds crazy, but toilet sounds "chique" to us if pronounced in French. The word toilet seems to have meant originally a place to clean the body. It has come to mean (1) a place for defecation and urination, and (2) the porcelain device used for the same.
Toilet sounds a little crude, direct, impolite. (An exception is toilet kit, this is the bag men carry when they travel that contains a razor, shaving cream, shaving lotion, cologne, toothbrush and toothpaste, etc.) When pronounced the usual way, it sounds very non-chique, at least to me. Surely that is why we have so many terms for it in English. I would not hesitate to ask a friend "Where is the toilet / head / john / crapper, etc.?" but in a polite conversation, let's say in a restaurant or among women, I might ask "Where is the men's room / restroom / lavatory / loo, etc?"
head = military (especially the Navy and Marine Corps)
kybo = common among American Boy Scouts
john = often heard among men
latrine = military (especially the Army and Air Force)
loo = often heard among women
outhouse = the primitive, waterless toilet found in the country
powder room = for women
sh*tter = vulgar
sh*thouse = vulgar
washroom = often heard among men
In Bolivia, there is no polite way to ask the whereabouts of the nearest toilet. And if you have to ask, it's probably too late.