"Where are you from" would do in most contexts, since from expresses origin.
I am not saying that "originally" is wrong in the sentence, indeed it seems more accurate, it´s that in English is normal and natural to shorten some sentences in English. So, such is the case.
It also may or may not be answered with information about state, neighbourhood, etc.
Malkin: I am curious to hear about your encounter with U.S. Soldiers arriving in Baghdad.
Kelly: It was an unusual day. There had been a lot of confusion that morning as to how close U.S. Troops were to Baghdad...
They called up to us, “Who are you?” and we told them we were a peace team.
“Where are you from?” they asked, and we answered: Chicago, New York, Boston.
The Sun Magazine | And A Time For Peace
(excerpt of an item about the 1991 Gulf War.)