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In English, as in Portuguese, it is not necessary to say exactly when the past event occurred in order for the past tense to be appropriate.
Keep in mind that in some instances, you're simply not saying everything that you're supposed to say.
It may also be that the time is implied or known in your head, but is not specifically mentioned.
"I forgot my pencil," most likely means, "I forgot my pencil in the house this morning." So in effect, you have a time in mind and the other person knows what you mean, so it's still simple past but used in an informal and concise manner.
"I had to kill her," is most likely a conversation in which the time that you committed the crime has already been expressed, so therefore, you don't have to keep saying, "Last night, I had to kill her."
So again, the absence of the time in each proclamation doesn't mean that you're no longer using the simple past.
If you say, "I have forgotten my pencil," without any specified time, then you're in the present perfect, because of the construction of that sentence and the context. So in this case, you most likely mean that it happened before at some unspecified time in the past.
First, I've searched W.R for a post that could answer this question, but didn't find it. So, my question: is it natural/appropriate to ask a question with "when?" after a statement in the present perfect? Please take a look at the example I made.
John: I've broken my leg.
John: Last week.
Thank you in advance!
Comentários (respostas) do Wordreference(UK):
One wouldn't say naturally 'I have broken my leg last week', but, if someone was to say to you 'I have broken my leg', then 'When?' could be an entirely natural and appropriate shortened version of 'When did you do that?'
It's the kind of thing which one hears all the time in everyday conversation.
It's in my view a little bit unnaturally abrupt there just to ask "When?"
But if you were to expand it to "When did you do that? Or "When did that happen?", it would make a pefectly idiomatic conversation.